Snake in traditional ethnology and healing magic of the Bashkirs "One of the elements of traditional culture is traditional medicine, which includes both rational knowledge and experience, and magic. If rational knowledge and experience in traditional medicine of many nations, including Bashkir degrees are investigated, folk ethnology and healing magic are almost not studied. Meanwhile, the description, scientific understanding and interpretation of this cultural phenomenon could help in revealing ancient ideas, worldview, contact history, ethno eneza, history of the language of a people & nbsp;.
Information about Bashkir folk medicine begins to appear from the end of the XVIII century. The scientific study of individual aspects of traditional medicine begins in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of scholars, both in the 19th and 20th centuries, was mainly rational folk medicine. As for folk ethnology and the healing magic of the Bashkirs, their scientific study is just beginning. & Nbsp;
This article will discuss only the snake in traditional ethnology and healing magic of the Bashkirs. In the mythology of the Bashkir snake image occupies a special place. Occurs in her ak yylan / white or sacred snake /, kara yylan / black snake or viper /, tuzbash yylan / already /, azhdaha / mythical huge snake that lived to 500 / in some works of folklore to 40, 100, 200. 300/300 / years, yukha / snake-azhdaha, which, having lived up to 1000 years, turns into a beautiful girl or young man, etc. Judging by the materials, almost all snakes are the enemies of man. Therefore, when they meet, the Bashkirs try to kill the snake, and with a whip soaked in horse sweat. Usually, older Bashkirs say: "Yylan is a doshman of the street. Una lterem, take kil, ty" / A snake is an enemy, they say, if you don’t kill her, come to your grave. Human enemies are depicted in folklore and mythical azhdap and yukha. In particular, Yukha, marrying a man, begins to suck out his life force. As a result, the weakened person lost weight without obvious signs of illness, eventually died. & Nbsp;
Of all the snakes, according to the stories of the informants, you cannot kill the snake and the white snake. In particular, the Bashkirs say about the white snake: “Ak yylan - yylandarzybatshykhi Ak street, yylandy lterert yaramai. The white snake cannot be killed. The person who killed the white snake, the snake will eat on the spot /.& nbsp;
Bashkirs also believe that a white snake can give a person happiness. Wed "Ak, yylanga ak, yauly, halkha, ul mzmezn hala. Ul kshe bhetle bula, tizr". / If a white snake to put a white handkerchief, then she / snake / puts his horns. It is said that the man who received the horns of the white snake will be happy / .& nbsp;
Judging by the materials, you can not kill, and already. Almost in all villages they tell about how a person who killed a snake happened to have a misfortune in a house. So, the material presented above shows that in traditional representations of the Bashkirs the snake is a very contradictory image. On the one hand, all snakes are considered enemies of man. This is evidenced by the proverb: "Yylandy Karahi la - yylan, ay la - yylan" And the black snake is a snake, and the white snake is a snake, literally: the enemy, the villain /, by which all snakes, up to the white snake, are foes. On the other hand, a white snake can give a person happiness, and having a snake in a house contributes to the well-being, happiness of the family, and the health of its members. & Nbsp;
Traditional ideas about the inconsistency of the image of the snake and determined the features of healing magic and folk ethnology of the Bashkirs. In traditional ethnology, the snake is one of the dangerous causes of the disease. The snake strikes a person not only with its bite, but also with its gaze. In both the tongue and in the eyes of the snake, there is a demon near / arrow-sting /, which penetrated into a person, immediately striving to his heart /. If the demon has a sting / manages to "run down" to the heart, the person stops breathing, the gift of speech is lost, he begins to swell. If the time is not to invite Yylan Arbaus / snake charmer /, the stung person dies. & Nbsp;
So, as the material shows, in the national ethnology of the Bashkirs the snake
is one of the most dangerous causes of illness, because along with a snake bite into a human, a sting demon comes to an animal / y /. The only way to get rid of the sting, according to the Bashkirs, is - arbau / spelling / .
It is interesting to note that not only a snake bite, but also other diseases, the cause of which, according to Bashkir ideas, was the hit of a demon sting in a person or an animal, are treated in an arbau way. In particular, the evil eye / kz tyu /, damage to the word, teltsh, i.e. a rabbit / curse /, or eybt / gossip /, a bee sting / court sayu / Bashkirs also heal the arbau / spell / in a magical way, believing that during the evil eye of a person or animal it affects the short-eyed sting sting of tongue or teeth, bee sting - sting of bee & nbsp; etc. According to the stories of the Bashkirs, the arbauses / exorcist / knows the mysterious sign of the snake / yylan body /, bees / ort body /. Knowledge of language, ability to speak separately